The Seven Churches


Ephesus receives praise for its perseverance, but criticism for forsaking its "first love."
(Rev. 2:1-7)

Modern Times

Ephesus is a major tourist destination and main stop for cruise lines due to its extensive archaeological ruins.


Smyrna's message speaks of false Jews and impending persecution, but encourages perseverance which will be rewarded.
(Rev. 2:8-11)

Modern Times

Izmir is the 3rd largest city in Turkey, with 2.5 million people. It is known as the " Pearl of the Aegean" and is one of Turkey's most Westernized cities.


Pergamum, described as having the throne of Satan (the Zeus altar?), is praised for its martyrdom and perseverance but those who hold false teachings are criticized.
(Rev. 2:12-17)

Modern Times

Bergama is a small modern village overlooked by many tourists.


Thyatira is praised for its increasing faith and service, but criticized for its tolerance of Jezebel, an immoral women who calls herself a prophetess.
(Rev. 2:12-17)

Modern Times

The ruins of ancient Thyatira are in a fenced-off area in the center of modern Akhisar.


The church of Sardis is described as dead, and it must wake up. However, there are some who have not "soiled their clothes."
(Rev. 3:1-6)

Modern Times

Sardis is about 50 miles east of Izmir, and is solely an archaeological site. A small village nearby is named Sart.


Philadelphia is praised for having little strength but still persevering. Those who falsely claim to be Jews, but are actually of the "synagogue of Satan," will be judged.
(Rev. 3:7-13)

Modern Times

Alasehir is a small town of about 40,000 people with narrow winding streets and a Byzantine wall. Few ruins remain at the site of ancient Philadelphia.


The church of Laodicea is sharply criticized for being lukewarm. Its wealth hides its spiritual poverty.
(Rev. 3:14-20)

Modern Times

Nearby Denizli is an attractive market town with a population of about 200,000. Laodicea is solely an archaeological site.

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